The Globe Hot Air Oven is of universal memmert type having an electrically heated and thermostatically controlled chamber with double walled construction. The inner walls are made of Stainless Steel sheet and outer walls of CRCA sheets. The space between the two walls is filled with mineral wool for insulation. The chamber is fitted with three adjustable perforated shelves also made of Stainless Steel sheet.
The heaters are placed in the ribs, at the bottom and sides of the chamber. The temperature is indicated and controlled with the help of a digital temperature indicator cum controller. An air-circulating fan is provided inside the chamber for ensuring an even temperature distribution.
The door of the oven also has a double walled construction with the inner walls being made from Stainless Steel sheet and outer walls of CRCA sheet, with mineral wool insulation in between the two walls. The door is also provided with synthetic rubber gasket.
The outside of the oven is finished in powder coating to give it a corrosion resistant finish.
The Vamp Flex Tester is used for assessing the tendency of shoe uppers and lining materials to crack or fail at the flexing creases formed in the upper during walking.
In this test, square shaped test specimens are held at their opposite edges in two inverted V-shaped clamps having their holding faces in the same plane. One of the clamps is kept fixed while the other is made to move towards it and back repeatedly, producing cracks similar to those formed in the vamp of the shoe. This process is repeated continuously and the condition of the test specimens checked after different specified number of flexing cycles till failure occurs. For conducting resistance to hydrolysis the test specimens are conditioned in saturated water vapour atmosphere by keeping them in a dessicator above water for seven days at 70°C, followed by conditioning under a standard temperature for 24 hours before conducting the flexing test at -5°C.
Penetration through most upper leathers would be very slow if they were merely put into contact with water without flexing, and the rate of penetration of most leathers may be greatly accelerated by increasing the severity of the flexing (for example, by increasing the amplitude of the crank motion on the test machine). Experience shows that if all types of upper leather are flexed to the same extent when tested on the machine, the water proofness of thick leathers in actual wear will be under estimated, and that of thin leathers over estimated. For this reason, the machine is so constructed that any one of four amplitudes may be chosen for particular tests.
The Globe Auxiliary Apparatus is used for deciding whether a particular leather or group of leathers should be flexed with 5, 7.5, 10 or 15% amplitude.
|Accuracy (%)||+/- 1%|
|Flexing Speed (cycles/min)||125-150|
|Number Of Head||2|
Bennewart Flex Tester is intended to determine the resistance of a component of material to cut growth under repeated flexing. It can also be used to assess the effect of surface patterns on crack initiation and growth.
This test is especially applicable to the outsoles of footwear, but may also be used with certain other flexible components.
One of the methods for determining the abrasion resistance of elastomers is by a Rotating Drum Abrasion Tester. In this test the elastomer under test is abraded against an abrading surface mounted over a rotating drum. The abrading surface has a specified abrading power. The test specimen, which is in form of a button, is held against it under a fixed load. The abrading surface is made to rub against the test specimen by rotating the drum at a fixed speed, the test specimen being meanwhile made to move along the axis of the drum.
|Minimum Order Quantity||1 Unit|
Out-soles of footwear or other flexing components may suffer cracking due to flexing in use. Cracks usually develop at points of high surface strain resulting from the design of the sole pattern, without there being any cuts due to grit etc. to initiate them.
The Belt Flex Tester is designed to flex complete soles with their patterns intact in a way similar to flexing in actual use. Tests carried out using it provide a guide to the risk of such cracks developing during use.
In this test, test specimens are attached to the outside of a continuous belt, which is driven round two rollers. The larger roller drives the belt, while movement of the belt round the smaller roller provides the main flexing action. The radius of the smaller roller is chosen to make the flexing either more severe or less severe than in actual use.
Safety or protective footwear should give safety to the toe of the user under compression load and to the sole against nail penetration. Compression Resistance Tester is determined by subjecting the footwear to a specified compression load and measuring the clearance with the help of a modeling clay cylinder.
Nail penetration force is determined by measuring the maximum force required for a standard nail to penetrate through the sole.
|Number Of Trays||2|
|Temperature (deg. Celsius)||celsius|
|Type of Testing Machines||Footwear Testing Machine|
A humidity chamber is used for exposing materials or products under test to an atmosphere of controlled humidity and temperature. For most of the materials it is used for conditioning the sample before the actual test is carried out. In case of helmets it is used to condition the helmets before conducting the impact absorption and penetration resistance tests on them.
The Globe Humidity Chamber is designed to produce controlled humidity using an appropriate saturated salt solution corresponding to the humidity required at the specified temperature. The salt solution is kept at the bottom of the chamber. The solution releases water vapour to increase the relative humidity, if it is below the specified value, or absorbs water vapour, if the relative humidity is higher.
The chamber is constructed from 10 mm thick transparent acrylic sheet and has two wide doors. Two shelves made of plastic material to keep the specimen under test on and two plastic trays for keeping the saturated salt solution are provided with the chamber.
An air-circulating fan to keep the conditions uniform in the chamber is also provided. The relative humidity and the temperature inside the chamber are measured with the help of dry and wet bulb thermometers.
Soles of footwear intended for use under high temperature conditions shall be able to provide thermal insulation to the feet of the user.
The ability of sole of any footwear to provide adequate thermal insulation is determined by placing the footwear under test in a sand bath maintained at a temperature of 150°C with the sand coming up to the top edge of its outsole and measuring the temperature on top of its insole after a period of thirty minutes.
The resistance of the surface finish and color of leather to action of heating such as may occur when shoes are flamed, hot blasted, ironed, or subjected to other shoe making operations involving contact with hot tools, machine parts, air and gases, is determined by pressing a piece of finished leather under a copper bit maintained at different elevated temperatures for a period of five seconds under a specified load and evaluating the change in color produced with the help standard grey scale for change in color.
The electric resistance of helmets is measured by applying a high voltage between an electrode placed in salt solution kept inside the helmet and another electrode placed in a salt solution bath in which the helmet is placed in inverted position. The voltage is slowly increased to the specified value and the current passing between the two electrodes measured for evaluating the electrical resistance of the helmet under test.
The GlobeElectric Resistance Testerfor helmets consists of a plastic container with an acrylic frame placed in its center for keeping the helmet under test on. The two electrodes are held in suitable clamps, one located inside the helmet and the other in the bath.
A high voltage source is provided with the equipment for supplying the test voltage. It consists of a variac, a step-up transformer, a digital voltmeter, and a digital mili-ammeter with a pre-settable tripping currents.
All the parts used in the tester are made from materials that do not get affected by salt solution used for conducting the test.
The resistance of the surface finish and colour of leather to action of heating such as may occur when shoes are flamed, hot blasted, ironed, or subjected to other shoe making operations involving contact with hot tools, machine parts, air and gases, is determined by pressing a piece of finished leather under a copper bit maintained at different elevated temperatures for a period of five seconds under a specified load and evaluating the change in colour produced with the help standard grey scale for change in color.
Digital Sole Adhesion Tester is used to test the strength of adhesion of a sole to its upper is determined by measuring the force needed to pull off the sole from the upper. A suitable last is placed inside the shoe, which is then placed on a straight edge acting as a fulcrum for applying load on the joint of the sole and upper. The maximum load the sole can withstand before coming off is determined and reported as the sole adhesion strength. This test can be carried out either at the heel or at the toe of the shoe.
For conducting tests on various materials or products, test specimens of specified shapes and size are to be cut out of the test samples.
Test specimens of rubber, leathers, fabrics, foam, flexible / semi-rigid plastics and similar other materials are usually cut with the help of knife edged dies of appropriate shapes and dimensions. The test sample / slab is placed over a flat and smooth piece of plywood, hardwood, rigid plastic, or hard rubber (ebonite) while the cutting die is pressed down from the top to cut out the test specimens.
The ability of elevated heels of ladies shoes and sandals to withstand repeated lateral impacts without breaking off is determined by holding the heel in a suitable holder and giving repeated impacts of specified impact energy near its lower edge. The test is continued till the time the heel fractures, or till a total number of 20,000 impacts is given to the heel under test. The number of impacts after which the heel fractures gives a measure of the Fatigue Resistance of the heel under test.
The Shoe Flex Tester is used for determination of the ability of the full shoe to withstand the effect of flexing stresses produced on the different parts of the shoe. Although the various parts like uppers and soles of a shoe are tested separately for flexing endurance with the help of flexometer and Ross flex tester, the shoe flex tester gives results, which are more related to the actual performance of the shoe as a whole.
The toe portion of safety / protective footwear shall be sufficiently rigid so as not to get pressed down beyond a specified limit when a heavy block falls down on it, thus preventing crushing of or injury to the toe of the user.
The toes of such footwear are generally reinforced with a steel toe-cap to provide rigidity to them. Whether these toe-caps are sufficient robust so as to fulfill their desired function is ascertained by subjecting the toe-cap assembled in a cut-out shoe to an impact by a falling weight. The toe-cap shall not press down beyond a specified limit during the impact.
Wear Tester For Shoe Lace
The resistance of Shoe Laces to wear and tear due to abrasion while tying is determined by abrading two samples of the lace against each other under a specified tension and finding the number of rubs which cause one of the laces to wear off till it breaks into two. One of the laces used in the test is formed into a loop and suspended from a pin in a vertical plane. One end of the second laces is held in a rotating grip. The lace is passed through the loop of the first lace and a specified dead weight suspended from its free and to keep both the loops under tension. The movement of the grip causes rubbing action between the two laces, which continues till one of them fails. The number of rubs needed to cause failure gives a measure of the resistance of the lace to wear. Wearing of lace against eye let can also be evaluated.
SATRAPM154 – 1992:Physical Test Method for Shoe Lace to Shoe Lace and Shoe Lace to Lace Carrier Abrasion.
The ability of light leathers and leather-cloth used in manufacture of shoe uppers, gloves, and garments to withstand repeated flexing without cracking is determined with the help of a Cold Flexometer. In a cooler environments the material becomes brittle and its ability to withstand flexing deteriorate very fast. As such for shoes, which are used in very cold weather, conducting this test at sub-zero temperature is very important