The Leather Testing Equipment is used to test the leather on various parameters and further ensure the quality of the leather being tested. This leather testing is very easy to use and reliable for its accurate reading produced. The leather testing equipment include abrasion tester, finish film adhesion tester, flexometer. We manufacture and export from top grade metal and are furnished with zinc plating for corrosion resistant free.
The resistance to Abrasion Tester of sole leather may be determined with the help of a drum type abrader (similar to NBS abrader). In this test, an abrasive cloth strip of a specified grit is fixed over the circumference of a drum, which is rotated at a specified speed. The test specimen, in shape of a rectangular strip, is held on a metallic bar located above the drum such that its longer axis is perpendicular to the axis of the drum. When the metallic bar is pressed against the drum, the test specimen gets abraded. The number of revolutions needed to produce a depth of abrasion of 2. 5 mm is determined and compared against that needed to produce a depth of abrasion of 2. 5 mm in a standard rubber compound to obtain the abrasive index of the leather sample under test.
The resistance to cracking of the grain of a leather sample and its crack index are determined by taking a rectangular strip from the sample of leather under test and bending it around a cylindrical mandrel while maintaining the two in close contact. The test specimen is successively bent over mandrels of diminishing diameters to produce successively higher degree of extension in its outer grains till cracks start appearing on its outer surface. The diameter of mandrel over which the crack is first observed gives the measure of the resistance to cracking and crack index of the sample under test.
The Globe CracknessTester consists of an arrangement to hold the test specimen at one of its ends, a roller to bend it over the mandrel while keeping it pressed against it, a lever pivoted at the axis of the mandrels, and a set of mandrels of specified diameters with an arrangement to fix them over a fixed pin.
The Globe Permeometer for sole leather consists of a fixed platform with its upper surface covered by a strip of cotton gauge kept moist by a slow flow of distilled water from holes in the platform. A brass roller is provided to move in a horizontal direction along the length of the platform with the help of a motor, gearbox, and link mechanism. The roller is mounted on ball bearings with its axis horizontal and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the roller.
The test specimen is kept on the platform with its one ends clamped to it. The other end of the specimen is clamped to the roller. The to-and-fro movement of the roller gives repeated bending and straightening effect to the specimen, with the roller exerting a constant force on the portion of the specimen located under it. The specimen is kept taut during its movement with the help of springs fitted to the roller. An electronic arrangement is provided to give an audio–visual signal to indicate penetration of water through the test specimen.
The equipment is finished in shore blue metallic painting and bright chrome / zing plating to give it a corrosion resistant finish. All components that come in contact with water during the test are made of brass or aluminium to avoid their corrosion.
The weight of water vapours absorbed by a sample of leather is determined by fixing a circular piece of leather over a cylindrical cavity in a metal container having distilled water inside it. The test specimen is held firmly against the lip of the cavity and allowed to come in contact with the vapours left off by the water for a specified period of time. The gain in weight of the test specimen because of absorption of vapours by it is determined, from which the value of Water Vapour Absorption is calculated.
One of the tests for determination of color fastness of dyed leather is the crocking test. This test is used for the determination of colorfastness against rubbing, either under dry or under wet conditions.
The Globe Crockmeter (motorized model) consists of a rigid flat metallic platform on which the test specimen can be held firmly and an abrading finger that rubs against it under a specified load. The platform is fixed over the base of the equipment and lies in a horizontal plane. The test specimen is held firmly over an abrasive paper, which is pasted on the upper face of the platform, with the help of two pressing pins holding it at both ends.
The abrading finger has a flat circular rubbing face, which is covered with a piece of white rubbing fabric during the test. The rubbing fabric picks up color lost by the test specimen during rubbing. It is held over the finger with the help of a spiral spring.
The uppers of shoes get folded over the toe portion every time a step is taken. These repeated foldings cause the finished grains to start cracking, resulting in loss of water resistance. To ensure that the leather uppers retain their water resistance for a reasonable period of use, the action of such foldings on them is evaluated by subjecting test specimens taken from the leather to a water penetration test using a penetrometer.
In this apparatus the test specimens are held in form of a trough between two cylindrical grips. One of the grips is then repeatedly moved towards and away from the other along their common axis. The test specimens are kept immersed in a water bath up to a part of their periphery. Penetration is detected when an electric conductivity is established between the inside and outside surfaces of the test specimens.
Tensile Strength and elongation are the two prime characteristics of most of the raw materials, whether they are metals; or non metals such as rubber, leather, textiles, plastic, paper; or finished products such as rods, wires, ropes, yarns, belts etceteras. These two properties often play a major role in determining the suitability of any raw material for any specified application. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to determine these characteristics accurately, conveniently, and quickly.
The Globe Tensile Testing Machines provide a relatively inexpensive way for determining the tensile strength and elongation of a variety of raw materials such as rubber, leather, fabric, plastics, belts, wires, etceteras. They are based on constant rate of traverse principle, in which one end of the test specimen is held in a stationery grip while the other end is moved at a known fixed speed with the help of a motor, gear box, and screw arrangement.
Water Proofness of leather used for manufacture of gloves is determined by placing a test specimen taken from the sample of leather under test on a wetted surface of a metal anvil. The upper surface of the test specimen is tapped intermittently by a hammer, which falls on it. The number of taps required to produce penetration of water through the test specimen is found to determine its water proofness. Also, the increase in weight of the test specimen is found to determine the mass of water it absorbs during this operation.
The Water Vapour Permeability of leather, that is its ability to allow moisture to pass through it, is of considerable importance, especially when the leather under test is being used for manufacture of apparels.
Water vapour permeability of leather is evaluated by clamping a circular test specimen over the mouth of a bottle containing a solid desiccant and subjecting it to a rapid current of air. The air inside the bottle is circulated by keeping the desiccant in motion. The increase in weight of the bottle over a specified interval of time gives the quantitative measure of the water vapour permeability of the leather sample, under test.
The Rub Proofness Tester is used for testing the fastness of colour of light leathers to wet and dry rubbing and measuring the transfer of colour to the material with which it is rubbed. The test piece is rubbed with a rotating circular felt pad pressed against it under the specified load, and the number of revolutions of the pad required to produce certain effects is measured.
This equipment can also be used to assess the degree of damage to a material during mild wet abrasion to imitate the scuffing action of a damp hose on footwear insole during wear. A rotating wet circular felt pad, covered with a worsted repp fabric, rubs the test specimen under a specified contact force. The overall damage to the test specimens is assessed by measuring their mass loss after a specified numbers of revolutions.
The determination of distension and strength of grains of any leather sample may conveniently be carried out with the help of the ball burst test.
In this test, a hemispherical hardened metallic tip is pressed against one face of the leather disc held in a suitable non-slipping grip and the force needed to make the tip pierce through the test specimen determined to evaluate the grain strength. The distention of leather at which the tip pierces through is also determined.
The apparatus used for this evaluation is called Lastometer.
The strength of adhesion between finish film and the leather surface it is applied on may be found either by pressing a pressure sensitive adhesive tape over it and peeling it off, or by separating the finish film from leather and finding the force needed to separate it further. The first method is empirical in nature and cannot be reproduced accurately as the adhesion strength of various adhesive tapes and their bonding with the finish surface cannot be standardized. Hence the second method Is generally used for this determination.
In SATRA method for determination of finish film adhesion, a smooth metallic or rigid PVC specimen-mounting strip is pasted onto the finish film along the length of the test specimen with the help of a suitable adhesive. After the bond is set, the sides of the test specimen are trimmed flush with the edges of the mounting strip and the mounting strip held in a horizontal plane. The end of the test specimen is separating from the finish film and a pan containing dead weights suspended from it. The force needed to cause the finish film layer to separate further is determined by adding dead weights to the pan till the separation of the film from the leather takes place.
The GlobeFinishFilmAdhesionTester(SATRAtype) for leather consists of an arrangement to hold the test specimen with the mounting strip on a suitable frame, a hanger with disc shaped dead weights to apply the separating force on the film and leather bond, and a hinged platform on which the pan can rest with an arrangement to lower it.
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