The Leather Testing Equipment is used to test the leather on various parameters and further ensure the quality of the leather being tested. This leather testing is very easy to use and reliable for its accurate reading produced. The leather testing equipment include abrasion tester, finish film adhesion tester, flexometer. We manufacture and export from top grade metal and are furnished with zinc plating for corrosion resistant free.
The resistance to Abrasion Tester of sole leather may be determined with the help of a drum type abrader (similar to NBS abrader). In this test, an abrasive cloth strip of a specified grit is fixed over the circumference of a drum, which is rotated at a specified speed. The test specimen, in shape of a rectangular strip, is held on a metallic bar located above the drum such that its longer axis is perpendicular to the axis of the drum. When the metallic bar is pressed against the drum, the test specimen gets abraded. The number of revolutions needed to produce a depth of abrasion of 2. 5 mm is determined and compared against that needed to produce a depth of abrasion of 2. 5 mm in a standard rubber compound to obtain the abrasive index of the leather sample under test.
Penetration through most upper leathers would be very slow if they were merely put into contact with water without flexing, and the rate of penetration of most leathers may be greatly accelerated by increasing the severity of the flexing (for example, by increasing the amplitude of the crank motion on the test machine). Experience shows that if all types of upper leather are flexed to the same extent when tested on the machine, the water proofness of thick leathers in actual wear will be under estimated, and that of thin leathers over estimated. For this reason, the machine is so constructed that any one of four amplitudes may be chosen for particular tests.
The Globe Auxiliary Apparatus is used for deciding whether a particular leather or group of leathers should be flexed with 5, 7.5, 10 or 15% amplitude.
One of the tests for determination of color fastness of dyed leather is the crocking test. This test is used for the determination of colorfastness against rubbing, either under dry or under wet conditions.
In this test a moving brass finger of specified shape and size rubs against the test specimens under a fixed load. The amount of color transferred to a piece of abradant fabric fixed over the base of the moving finger is graded either against the amount of color transferred by a standard leather sample under identical conditions, or by visual rating of amount of color transferred during dry and wet rubbing.
The Globe Crockmeter (motorized model) consists of a rigid flat metallic platform on which the test specimen can be held firmly and an abrading finger that rubs against it under a specified load. The platform is fixed over the base of the equipment and lies in a horizontal plane. The test specimen is held firmly over an abrasive paper, which is pasted on the upper face of the platform, with the help of two pressing pins holding it at both ends.
The abrading finger has a flat circular rubbing face, which is covered with a piece of white rubbing fabric during the test. The rubbing fabric picks up color lost by the test specimen during rubbing. It is held over the finger with the help of a spiral spring.
The ability of leather used in bookbinding to successfully withstand without cracking repeated opening and closing of the book is determined by subjecting the leather to a repeated folding test.
In this test thetest specimen in form of a rectangular strip of leather is bent repeatedly for one hundred times through 180°, the folding being done at the same location each time. At the end of this test, grain crack shall not occur on the outer folded surface of the leather specimen under test.
The GLOBEFoldingTester for bookbinding leather consists of a fixed grip for holding one end of test specimen, an oscillating arm which can move through a angle of 180° about a horizontal axis, and a flat blade held in a horizontal plane with its front edge coinciding with the pivoting axis of the oscillating arm.
IS2960 – 1964 : Specification for Bookbinding Leather
The uppers of shoes get folded over the toe portion every time a step is taken. These repeated foldings cause the finished grains to start cracking, resulting in loss of water resistance. To ensure that the leather uppers retain their water resistance for a reasonable period of use, the action of such foldings on them is evaluated by subjecting test specimens taken from the leather to a water penetration test using a penetrometer.
In this apparatus the test specimens are held in form of a trough between two cylindrical grips. One of the grips is then repeatedly moved towards and away from the other along their common axis. The test specimens are kept immersed in a water bath up to a part of their periphery. Penetration is detected when an electric conductivity is established between the inside and outside surfaces of the test specimens.
Tensile Strength and elongation are the two prime characteristics of most of the raw materials, whether they are metals; or non metals such as rubber, leather, textiles, plastic, paper; or finished products such as rods, wires, ropes, yarns, belts etceteras. These two properties often play a major role in determining the suitability of any raw material for any specified application. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to determine these characteristics accurately, conveniently, and quickly.
The Globe Tensile Testing Machines provide a relatively inexpensive way for determining the tensile strength and elongation of a variety of raw materials such as rubber, leather, fabric, plastics, belts, wires, etceteras. They are based on constant rate of traverse principle, in which one end of the test specimen is held in a stationery grip while the other end is moved at a known fixed speed with the help of a motor, gear box, and screw arrangement.
Water Proofness of leather used for manufacture of gloves is determined by placing a test specimen taken from the sample of leather under test on a wetted surface of a metal anvil. The upper surface of the test specimen is tapped intermittently by a hammer, which falls on it. The number of taps required to produce penetration of water through the test specimen is found to determine its water proofness. Also, the increase in weight of the test specimen is found to determine the mass of water it absorbs during this operation.
The Water Vapour Permeability of leather, that is its ability to allow moisture to pass through it, is of considerable importance, especially when the leather under test is being used for manufacture of apparels.
Water vapour permeability of leather is evaluated by clamping a circular test specimen over the mouth of a bottle containing a solid desiccant and subjecting it to a rapid current of air. The air inside the bottle is circulated by keeping the desiccant in motion. The increase in weight of the bottle over a specified interval of time gives the quantitative measure of the water vapour permeability of the leather sample, under test.
The resistance to abrasion of sole leather may be determined with the help of a drum type abrader (similar to NBS Abrader).
In this test, an abrasive cloth strip of a specified grit is fixed over the circumference of a drum, which is rotated at a specified speed. The test specimen, in shape of a rectangular strip, is held on a metallic bar located above the drum such that its longer axis is perpendicular to the axis of the drum. When the metallic bar is pressed against the drum, the test specimen gets abraded. The number of revolutions needed to produce a depth of abrasion of 2.5 mm is determined and compared against that needed to produce a depth of abrasion of 2.5 mm in a standard rubber compound to obtain the abrasive index of the leather sample under test.
Dimensions of abrasive drum : 150 mm diameter x 170 mm long
Width of abrasive cloth : 150 mm
Speed of rotation of abrasive drum : 36 ± 4 rpm
Grit of abrasive cloth : 40 or 36
The Rub Proofness Tester is used for testing the fastness of colour of light leathers to wet and dry rubbing and measuring the transfer of colour to the material with which it is rubbed. The test piece is rubbed with a rotating circular felt pad pressed against it under the specified load, and the number of revolutions of the pad required to produce certain effects is measured.
This equipment can also be used to assess the degree of damage to a material during mild wet abrasion to imitate the scuffing action of a damp hose on footwear insole during wear. A rotating wet circular felt pad, covered with a worsted repp fabric, rubs the test specimen under a specified contact force. The overall damage to the test specimens is assessed by measuring their mass loss after a specified numbers of revolutions.
The determination of distension and strength of grains of any leather sample may conveniently be carried out with the help of the ball burst test.
In this test, a hemispherical hardened metallic tip is pressed against one face of the leather disc held in a suitable non-slipping grip and the force needed to make the tip pierce through the test specimen determined to evaluate the grain strength. The distention of leather at which the tip pierces through is also determined.
The apparatus used for this evaluation is called Lastometer.