Dry cleaning Apparatus is used for preparing fabric samples for flammability testing. This apparatus can also be used for testing color fastness and dimensional changes during dry cleaning and during laundering.
The GlobeDry Cleaning Apparatusconsists of a motor driven corrosion resistant stainless steel tumbler, which rotates around an axis 50° inclined to tumbler axis at approximately 45 rpm. The tumbler is also provided with a stainless steel cover with a rubber seal and a quick acting positive clamp. The tumbler is rotated with the help of an electric motor through pulley-belt, reduction gearbox, and chain and sprocket drive.
Code of Federal Regulation (USA) Title 16, Chapter II, Part 1610 Standard for the Flammability of Textile Clothing.
The Globe Specific Gravity Balance provides a simple and quick mean to read directly the specific gravity of rubber and other elastomers, thus reducing labor and eliminating calculations. The time taken to find out the specific gravity of a sample is only about half a minute.
The balance consists of an anodized scale with specific gravity (SG) printed on it standing vertically on a heavy base plate. A balancing arm is provided at the center point of the scale. The arm is supported on two jewel bearings to minimize friction.
Two stainless steel pins are suspended from one end of the arm. One of the pins is attached through a short length of yarn and the other through a long length of yarn. The second pin is kept immersed in water inside a tall transparent jar kept on the base. This pin also acts as the sinker.
A pointer is attached at the other end of the balancing arm that indicates the specific gravity of sample under test. A sliding weight is provided for initial balancing of the test specimens of different weights. A leveling screw is provided for initial leveling of the base plate.
The jar in which the test specimen is dipped for measurement of its specific gravity is placed on the base of a frame that can be moved up or down on a rod fixed to the base of the balance.
From 0.2 to 0.8 : graduated in divisions of 0.005
From 0.8 to 1.5 : graduated in divisions of 0.01
From 1.5 to 2.0 : graduated in divisions of 0.02
The stability under load at elevated temperatures of insulating materials used for the manufacture of electric cables is an important property as it determines the suitability of the material for use as insulation.
The GlobeHot Deformation Testeris designed to determine the resistance of PVC insulation and sheaths to pressure at elevated temperatures. The apparatus consists of a support on which the test specimen is kept and a stainless steel blade of a specified thickness with an arrangement to apply the specified load on the cable under test through the blade. A set of weights is provided to give the specified load on the test specimen.
The thickness of fabrics and similar pressure sensitive material is measured by placing it over a flat circular anvil and bringing a flat circular pressure foot in contact with its upper face under the action of a specified load applied by means of a dead weight.
This method gives an accurate measure of the thickness and is free of any error due to change in load normally associated with spring loaded thickness gauges.
The GlobeThickness Gauge(Dead Weight Type) consists of a dial indicator having a flat circular pressure foot and a flat circular anvil. The indentor exerts a fixed pressure on the fabric under test with the help of a dead weight placed over its stem. The faces of the pressure foot and the anvil are ground flat and made parallel to each other by adjusting the level of the anvil.
The whole arrangement is mounted on a rigid cast aluminum base. It is finished in Shore Blue Metallic painting and bright chrome plating. The pressure foot and anvil are made from magnetic stainless steel.
A carpet thickness gauge is used for determining the thickness of the floor covering under a specified load. It can also be used for determination of thickness under different loads, thus giving an indication of the resistance of floor covering to compression under load, as well as its ability to recover from the effects of such loads after the load is removed.
The Globe Carpet Thickness Gauge is designed to measure the thickness of floor coverings under different loads. It consists of a rigid metallic frame having a loading rod held with its axis vertical, capable of moving freely within two brass guide bushes. The rod has a flat cylinder indentor mounted on its lower end and a small metallic disc mounted on its body. Slotted disc weights of appropriate loading capacity can be placed on the disc to enable different loads to be applied on the floor covering under test. The rod and the load can be raised or lowered with the help of a lever arm.
A dial indicator is provided above the loading rod. The tip of the dial indicator can be brought in contact with the upper face of the rod. An electrical system consisting of an LED and dry cells is provided to enable the thickness to be measured without the force of the dial indicator acting on the surface of the floor covering under test.
Accurate determination of thickness of leather is important in itself for its end use, as well as for evaluating other physical properties of leather under test.
The Globe Bench Thickness Gauge for leather is used for measuring thickness of leather samples with the help of a pressure foot exerting a specified pressure on it. It is also suitable for measuring thickness of leather test specimens whose dimensions are used for determining the results of physical tests or chemical analysis.
The thickness gauge consists of a dial micrometer mounted over a metallic base. The micrometer has a flat circular pressure foot or indentor. A specified force is applied on the leather sample by the pressure foot by means of dead weights placed vertically above it.
The sample whose thickness is to be measured is kept on a flat anvil having its upper face projecting 3 mm from the surface of a flat circular platform. The axes of the pressure foot, the platform, and the projecting anvil coincide with each other.
Accurate determination of thickness of rubber/ Textiles is of considerable importance, both for assuring conformity with design parameters and for evaluation of various physical properties. Determination of thickness of samples in laboratory is usually carried out with the help of a bench thickness gauge. The rubber component whose thickness is to be determined is kept on a flat anvil and a circular indentor is pressed onto it from the top under a specified pressure. The contact faces of the anvil and the indentor are ground flat and set in planes parallel to each other.
Range of measurement : 0 - 10 mm
Least count of dial gauge : 0.01 mm
Diameter of anvil : 50 mm (Nominal)
Diameter of indentor : 5 mm
Load on indentor : 43 g (220 g / cm²) - for rubber : 22 ± 5 Kpa
Throat depth : 50 mm (Nominal)
IS 3400 (Part 1) - 1987 : Methods of Test for Vulcanized Rubbers
Part 1: Tensile Stress - Strain Properties.
The GLOBEThickness Gauge for paper is a dead load type bench thickness gauge. It consists of a dial micrometer and a flat indenter which exerts a specified pressure on the test specimen kept on an anvil. The contact faces of the anvil and the indenter are ground flat and are perpendicular to their axis. Pressure is applied by means of a dead weight placed on the indenter.
The dial micrometer which indicates the thickness of paper is mounted above the indenter such the its tip rests on the upper end of the indenter rod. The indenter is raised and lowered by means of a lifting lever.
The whole arrangement is mounted on a cast iron base plate. The equipment is finished in bright chrome plating and shore blue matalic painting to give it a corrosion resistant finish.
IS 1060 (Part 1) – 1966 : Methods of Sampling and Tests for Paper and Allied
Clause 7 : Thickness
Pilling Tester is a fabric surface fault characterized by little pills of entangled fibres clinging to the surface. These are formed during wearing or washing by the entanglement of the loose fibres, which protrude from the fabric surface, and development of these into spherical bundles anchored to the fabric by a few unbroken fibers. These give a very unsightly look to the garments.
To determine the tendency to form pills, test specimens taken from the fabric sample are rubbed against each other under controlled conditions and the appearance of the test specimen after rubbing for the specified period is compared against standard rating photographs for grading the fabric under test.
Inside dimensions of wooden boxes : 225 x 225 x 225 mm
Toxicity Index is the numerical summation of the toxicity factors of selected gases produced by complete combustion of the material in air under the conditions specified. The toxicity factors are derived from the calculated quantity of each gas that would be produced when 100 g of the material is burnt in air in a volume of 1 m3 and the resulting concentration expressed as a factor of the concentration fatal to a man at a 30 minute exposure time. An index of 1 for a given volume, on average, bring about death in 30 minutes.
The GlobeToxicityIndexApparatus consists of an airtight rectangular enclosure made from 1 mm thick stainless steel sheet and lined on the inside with a layer of opaque polypropylene sheeting. A close fitting airtight door is provided for placing the test sample through and for igniting the pilot flame. A polycarbonate viewing window is provided on the door for observing the inside of the test enclosure. An illumination light is provided near the roof of the enclosure for ease in viewing.
Amongst the various means for the determination of rubber hardness the most important ones are the Durometer and the IRHD Hardness Tester. While the first uses the principle of indentation of a truncated cone in rubber under varying loads acting through a spring, the second method uses a fixed dead load acting on a hemispherical indenting tip. Whereas the first method suffers from the disadvantage of permanent set getting developed in the spring and thus affecting its accuracy, the second method, being based on dead load principle, is free from this problem.
The Globe IRHD Hardness Tester is table model equipment suitable for reference testing of hardness of rubber or similar polymers in the laboratory. It consists of a plunger rod carrying a hardened hemispherical tip of the specified diameter at its lower end. The rod is located within a cylindrical guide and is constrained to move inside it. The base of the guide acts as the pressure foot surrounding the point of indentation. Under normal condition the pressure foot extends below the indenting tip, thus preventing it from getting damaged. An indenting load is positioned over the plunger rod without directly acting on it.
The GLOBESpecificGravityBalance provides a simple and quick mean to read directly the specific gravity of rubber and other elastomers, thus reducing labour and eliminating calculations. The time taken to find out the specific gravity of a sample is only about half a minute.
The balance consists of an anodised scale with specific gravity (SG) printed on it standing vertically on a heavy base plate. A balancing arm is provided at the centre point of the scale. The arm is supported on two jewel bearings to minimise friction.
Two stainless steel pins are suspended from one end of the arm. One of the pins is attached through a short length of yarn and the other through a long length of yarn. The second pin is kept immersed in water inside a tall transparent jar kept on the base.
A pointer is attached at the other end of the balancing arm that indicates the specific gravity of sample under test. A sliding weight is also provided for initial balancing of the samples of different weights. A levelling screw is provided for initial levelling of the base plate.
A sample of any shape can be used for determination of specific gravity. Its weight shall, however, lie between 5 and 15 g. The sample used shall not be soluble in water or be affected by it in any way. If the sample has a cellular structure, the cells shall be of closed type so that the absorption of water is kept at minimum.
From0.9to2.0:graduated in divisions of 0.01
From2.0to2.5:graduated in divisions of 0.02
From2.5to3.0:graduated in divisions of 0.05
Flex testing provides useful information about the durability of treated fabrics and also about the ability of coated fabrics to resist development of cracks, or general mechanical deterioration of the material as a result of a relatively large number of flexes. In this test, the test specimen of specified shape and size are repeated flexed mechanically till the desired number of flexing cycles, or till the material under test fails. The effect of flexing on the test specimens and the number of flexes needed to cause failure give an indication of the quality of coating.
The flexing test may be carried out with the help of a De Mattia Flex Tester, in which the grips are located vertically above each other and have their holding face in one vertical plane. The central grip is moved up and down with the help of a motor to flex the specimens held between it and the upper and lower grips.
The Globe Indentation Hardness Tester For Polyurethane Foam consists of a circular indentor which can be pressed against the foam block under test, a motorized arrangement to move the indentor up or down, and a load measuring and indicating arrangement to indicate the load being exerted by the indentor on the foam block at any instant.
JIS K 6400 – 1997 : Test Methods for Flexible Polyurethane Foam
The feel of softness of any flexible foam is quantitatively defined by its indentation hardness. Indentation hardness is determined by pressing a circular indentor at a specified speed against a block of foam and finding the force needed to compress the block to a specified percentage of its initial thickness.
The Globe Indentation Hardness Tester for polyurethane foam seats consists of a circular steel indentor that can be pressed against the test specimen kept on a flat horizontal surface at a specified speed with arrangement to measure the load being applied by the indentor on the test specimen, arrangement to measure the thickness of the test specimen at the start of the test under a specified load, and arrangement to stop the movement of the indentor automatically after the desired deflection.
The feel of softness of any flexible foam is quantitatively defined by its indentation hardness. Indentation hardness is determined by pressing a circular indenter at a specified speed against a block of foam and finding the force needed to compress it to a specified percentage of its initial thickness.
The Globe Indentation Hardness Tester (computerized Model) consists of a circular steel indenter that can be pressed against the test specimen kept on a flat horizontal surface at a specified speed with arrangement to measure the load being applied by the indenter on the test specimen. A RS 232 interface is provided to connect the equipment to a computer. The total sequence of operations in accordance with various international standards can be conducted with the help of the software provided with the tester.
Hardness is one of themost important properties which determine the suitability of any rubber component for its intended end use. Incorrect hardness may defeat the basic purpose for which the component is designed. Thus accurate and reliable determination of hardness is of extreme importance in rubber field.
The Shore A Hardness Tester, also called as Durometer, is the most commonly used instrument for measurement of hardness of any rubber component. It is based on the measurement of depth of indentation of an indentor of specified shape being forced into the material under a specified pressure. This test method is an empirical method intended primarily for control purposes. No simple relationship exists between hardness determined by this test method and any fundamental property of the material being tested.
The durometer consists essentially of the following components:
Hardness is one of the most important properties that determine the suitability of any rubber component for its intended end use. Improper hardness may defeat the basic purpose for which the component is designed. Therefore, accurate and reliable determination of hardness is of extreme importance in rubber industry.
The spring type hardness tester, also called as Shore hardness tester or Durometer, is the most commonly used instrument for measurement of hardness of any rubber component. It is based on the measurement of depth of indentation of an indentor of specified shape when forced into the material under a specified pressure.
This test method is an empirical method intended primarily for control purposes. No simple relationship exists between hardness determined by this test method and any fundamental property of the material being tested.
The weight per unit area or grammage of any material in form of sheets is usually expresses as its GSM, that is its weight in grams per square metre of its area. It is one of the most important parameters to determine the quality of any paper. In addition to paper, it can also be used for evaluation of grammage of fabrics, coated fabrics, felt, plastic films and sheets, etc.
Scale A : 0 - 160 x 0.5 GSM (sample size 25 x 25 cm)
Scale B : 0 - 1000 x 4 GSM (sample size 10 x 10 cm)
Scale B : 0 - 600 x 2 GSM (sample size 20 x 12.5 cm)
Other scales can also be offered against specific requests.
The Globe Hot Air Oven is of universal memmert type having an electrically heated and thermostatically controlled chamber with double walled construction. The inner walls are made of Stainless Steel sheet and outer walls of CRCA sheets. The space between the two walls is filled with mineral wool for insulation. The chamber is fitted with three adjustable perforated shelves also made of Stainless Steel sheet.
The heaters are placed in the ribs, at the bottom and sides of the chamber. The temperature is indicated and controlled with the help of a digital temperature indicator cum controller. An air-circulating fan is provided inside the chamber for ensuring an even temperature distribution.
The door of the oven also has a double walled construction with the inner walls being made from Stainless Steel sheet and outer walls of CRCA sheet, with mineral wool insulation in between the two walls. The door is also provided with synthetic rubber gasket.
The outside of the oven is finished in powder coating to give it a corrosion resistant finish.
The body of waterproof protective footwear or gumboots shall be protected against ingress of water encountered when the wearer walks through water.
The ability of waterproof protective footwear to stop water from entering them is determined by closing their top opening with a watertight metallic or rubber end plug and immersing it up to its top edge under water. Compressed air at a specified pressure is introduced in the footwear and any leakage of air from it into water is examined visually for a constant stream of air bubbles.
The footwear under test is kept vertical inside the water bath used for its immersion by placing a number of large diameter steel balls in it.
A humidity chamber is used for exposing materials or products under test to an atmosphere of controlled humidity and temperature. For most of the materials it is used for conditioning the sample before the actual test is carried out. In case of helmets it is used to condition the helmets before conducting the impact absorption and penetration resistance tests on them.
The Globe Humidity Chamber is designed to produce controlled humidity using an appropriate saturated salt solution corresponding to the humidity required at the specified temperature. The salt solution is kept at the bottom of the chamber. The solution releases water vapour to increase the relative humidity, if it is below the specified value, or absorbs water vapour, if the relative humidity is higher.
The chamber is constructed from 10 mm thick transparent acrylic sheet and has two wide doors. Two shelves made of plastic material to keep the specimen under test on and two plastic trays for keeping the saturated salt solution are provided with the chamber.
An air-circulating fan to keep the conditions uniform in the chamber is also provided. The relative humidity and the temperature inside the chamber are measured with the help of dry and wet bulb thermometers.
Soles of footwear intended for use in low temperature conditions shall be able to provide low temperature insulation to the feet of the user so as not to become unbearably cold.
The ability of sole of any footwear to provide adequate Cold Insulation Tester is determined by placing the footwear under test inside a cold chamber maintained at -20°C and measuring the temperature of the insole.
Soles of footwear intended for use under high temperature conditions shall be able to provide thermal insulation to the feet of the user.
The ability of sole of any footwear to provide adequate thermal insulation is determined by placing the footwear under test in a sand bath maintained at a temperature of 150°C with the sand coming up to the top edge of its outsole and measuring the temperature on top of its insole after a period of thirty minutes.
The resistance of the surface finish and color of leather to action of heating such as may occur when shoes are flamed, hot blasted, ironed, or subjected to other shoe making operations involving contact with hot tools, machine parts, air and gases, is determined by pressing a piece of finished leather under a copper bit maintained at different elevated temperatures for a period of five seconds under a specified load and evaluating the change in color produced with the help standard grey scale for change in color.
The ability of protective coatings on metal parts of helmets to withstand corrosion is determined by suspending the complete helmet inside an enclosed chamber where they are sprayed with a solution of 5 parts of sodium chloride in 95 parts of distilled water (by mass) at room temperature for a period of 24 hours. After this period, the helmet is washed in running tap water, dried, and inspected for signs of corrosion.
The GlobeCorrosion Resistance Tester for metal parts of helmets consists of an acrylic chamber made from clear acrylic sheets. The chamber has a vertical partition at one of the ends forming a reservoir for salt solution. The solution is sprayed with the help of compressed air through two nozzles at right angles to each other. The spraying pressure is regulated with the help of an air regulator. A separate airline is provided to agitate the solution constantly with arrangement to adjust rate of air bubbling through the solution.
The helmet under test is placed in the second part of the chamber. The helmet is placed on PVC supports so that it is raised above the base of the chamber. The sprayed solution is collected at the bottom of the chamber and ran be removed through a drain cock. Thus the sprayed solution is prevented from contaminating fresh solution. An air outlet is provided in form of a stuffing box at the end of the chamber opposite to the spray nozzles. The box is lightly stuffed with cotton wool to trap the sprayed droplets going out of the chamber.
The compressed air is provided by a compressor offered as an optional accessory. The compressor is complete with motor, pressure gauge, pressure switch, and connecting hosepipe.
The electric resistance of helmets is measured by applying a high voltage between an electrode placed in salt solution kept inside the helmet and another electrode placed in a salt solution bath in which the helmet is placed in inverted position. The voltage is slowly increased to the specified value and the current passing between the two electrodes measured for evaluating the electrical resistance of the helmet under test.
The GlobeElectric Resistance Testerfor helmets consists of a plastic container with an acrylic frame placed in its center for keeping the helmet under test on. The two electrodes are held in suitable clamps, one located inside the helmet and the other in the bath.
A high voltage source is provided with the equipment for supplying the test voltage. It consists of a variac, a step-up transformer, a digital voltmeter, and a digital mili-ammeter with a pre-settable tripping currents.
All the parts used in the tester are made from materials that do not get affected by salt solution used for conducting the test.
The resistance of the surface finish and colour of leather to action of heating such as may occur when shoes are flamed, hot blasted, ironed, or subjected to other shoe making operations involving contact with hot tools, machine parts, air and gases, is determined by pressing a piece of finished leather under a copper bit maintained at different elevated temperatures for a period of five seconds under a specified load and evaluating the change in colour produced with the help standard grey scale for change in color.
Heat Resistance Tester For Pliable Electrical Conduits Of Insulating Materials
The ability of pliable electrical conduits made of insulating materials to withstand deformation at elevated temperatures is determined by keeping a 100 mm long piece of conduit under a specified load at a temperature of 60ºC for a period of 24 hours and determining the reduction in its cross sectional width because of the loading.
The GLOBE Heat Resistance Tester for pliable electrical conduits made of insulating materials consists of a metallic frame having a flat platform for placing a 100 mm long piece of conduit on, a horizontal metallic pin of 6 mm diameter held at the lower end of a vertical rod for applying the specified load on the conduit under test, and dead weights for applying the specified load on the conduit under test.
The loading rod is guided inside a vertical brass sleeve so that it can move only along a vertical axis. The weight of the loading assembly is 0.5 kg to enable testing of very light conduits. Additional weights of 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg are provided for testing light and medium conduits. These weights can be placed on a collar attached to the upper end of the loading rod.
IS 9537 (Part 4) - 1983 : Specification for Conduits for Electrical Installations
Part 4 : Pliable Self Recovering Conduits of Insulating Materials
The Globe Sole Adhesion Tester consists of a spring dynamometer to indicate the load applied at the junction of the sole and the upper, a lever arrangement to transmit the load exerted on the toe piece to the spring dynamometer, a straight edge fulcrum for resting the shoe on during the test, and a set of interchangeable toe pieces having different curvatures.
Digital Sole Adhesion Tester is used to test the strength of adhesion of a sole to its upper is determined by measuring the force needed to pull off the sole from the upper. A suitable last is placed inside the shoe, which is then placed on a straight edge acting as a fulcrum for applying load on the joint of the sole and upper. The maximum load the sole can withstand before coming off is determined and reported as the sole adhesion strength. This test can be carried out either at the heel or at the toe of the shoe.
The strength of adhesion between finish film and the leather surface it is applied on may be found either by pressing a pressure sensitive adhesive tape over it and peeling it off, or by separating the finish film from leather and finding the force needed to separate it further. The first method is empirical in nature and cannot be reproduced accurately as the adhesion strength of various adhesive tapes and their bonding with the finish surface cannot be standardized. Hence the second method Is generally used for this determination.
In SATRA method for determination of finish film adhesion, a smooth metallic or rigid PVC specimen-mounting strip is pasted onto the finish film along the length of the test specimen with the help of a suitable adhesive. After the bond is set, the sides of the test specimen are trimmed flush with the edges of the mounting strip and the mounting strip held in a horizontal plane. The end of the test specimen is separating from the finish film and a pan containing dead weights suspended from it. The force needed to cause the finish film layer to separate further is determined by adding dead weights to the pan till the separation of the film from the leather takes place.
The GlobeFinishFilmAdhesionTester(SATRAtype) for leather consists of an arrangement to hold the test specimen with the mounting strip on a suitable frame, a hanger with disc shaped dead weights to apply the separating force on the film and leather bond, and a hinged platform on which the pan can rest with an arrangement to lower it.
For conducting tests on various materials or products, test specimens of specified shapes and size are to be cut out of the test samples.
Test specimens of rubber, leathers, fabrics, foam, flexible / semi-rigid plastics and similar other materials are usually cut with the help of knife edged dies of appropriate shapes and dimensions. The test sample / slab is placed over a flat and smooth piece of plywood, hardwood, rigid plastic, or hard rubber (ebonite) while the cutting die is pressed down from the top to cut out the test specimens.
The effectiveness of the cord grip (anchorage) of an electrical or electronic appliance is determined by subjecting the cord to a specified pulling force for a specified number of times. Immediately afterwards, the cord is subjected to a specified torque. The action of these two forces shall not cause the cord to get shifted in the cord grip and the conductors in the terminals by more than a specified distance.
The Globe Cord Grip (Anchorage) Tester consists of an arrangement to apply the specified pulling force, and an arrangement to apply the specified torque, on the cord of the appliance under test.
The arrangement to apply the pulling force consists of a dead weight suspended from two threads, which, when free, acts on the cord fixed to the appliance under test through a grip in which one end of the cord is rigidly held. A lever is provided to apply and release the pull on the cord. A stroke counter records the number at pulling operations undergone by the cord.
Compression Set tests are intended to measure the ability of rubber compounds to retain their elastic properties after prolonged action of a known compressive stress under static loading.
The Globe CompressionSetApparatusfor determination of compression set characteristics of rubber under constant stress consists of a calibrated loading spring, a set of carbon steel ground and chromium plated plates, and a screw arrangement to compress the spring.
The test specimens are kept between parallel plates and the load applied by compressing the spring. Load acting on the test specimens can be read from a graph, which gives the value of load against spring deflection. A pointer on a scale fixed to the tester indicates the spring deflection.
Maximum number of test specimens
which can be tested simultaneously : Three
Maximum load which can be applied : 800 kg
ASTM D 395 – 1978 : Standard test method for rubber property-compression set
BS: 903 (Part A6) : Determination of compression set under constant load
Compression Set Apparatus Constant Stress Quick Clamping Type
Compression set of rubber components is defined as the difference between the original thickness and that after compression and subsequent recovery, expressed as percentage of the initially applied compression. The disc shaped test specimens are either obtained from the component or moulded from the compound from which the component is to be moulded It determines the ability of the rubber compound or the component moulded from it to retain its elastic property after prolonged compression.
Compression set may be determined after subjecting the test specimen either to a constant deflection, or after pressing it under a constant load. Compression set under constant deflection is determined by subjecting cylindrical disc shaped test specimens to a fixed strain for specified time at either room temperature or any other specified temperature, and then allowing it to recover for given time.
The Globe Compression Set Apparatus for determination of compression set under constant strain (quick clamping type) consists of four polished stainless steel plates having flat and parallel ground faces. These plates are fitted on a rigid metallic frame. A pair of rods is provided to locate the plates. The compressed thickness is maintained with the help of three pairs of spacers of thickness 9.50 mm. Compression springs are placed within these spacers to automatically lift the plates on release of the compression load, and serve to increase the gap between the plates for inserting or removing the test specimens.
Transport packages shall possess sufficient compression strength so that they do not get deformed or crushed when stacked one above the other, either during transit or in storage.
The compression strength of transport packages is determined by placing the package on a flat platform and pressing it down from top with the help of another flat plate, either by a motor or by manual arrangement.
The GlobeCompressionStrengthTesterfor transport packages is fabricated out of rigid mild steel sections and plates. The lower platen on which the box is kept for pressing is fixed on the frame of the tester. The package under test is placed over this platen and pressed down from top with the help of another platen. The upper platen is moved down by means of a screw arrangement. This platen is pivoted so that is can tilt to align its lower face with the top of the package, if the top and bottom faces of the package are not parallel. For conducting the edge and corner loading tests the upper platen can be held rigidly so that it does not tilt.
The load cell used for measurement of compressive force acting on the package under test is mounted above the upper platen. The load is indicated on a microprocessor based digital indicator. The load indicator has peak force memory to indicate the maximum load at which the package failed, and a relay with overload protection to stop the motor if the load exceeds the maximum capacity of the load cell.
The movement to the upper platen is given through a motor and gearbox arrangement. The distance moved by the upper platen is indicated on a separate digital display capable of measuring the distance to the nearest 1 mm. The equipment has over-travel protection arrangement to stop the motor at extreme limits of platen movement.
Conduits used in electrical installations shall possess adequate mechanical strength. One of the tests used for ascertaining the mechanical strength of conduits is the compression test. In this Compression tester, a test specimen taken from the sample of conduit under test is placed on a rigid flat surface and pressed from top with the help of a metallic cube. A specified load is applied on the conduit under test through the metallic cube and the reduction in diameter of the conduit determined. The load is then released and the recovery in the diameter is determined. The value of percentage deflection under load and percentage recovery after release of load are calculated and compared against specified values to evaluate the performance of the conduit under the action of compressive loads.
The ability of elevated heels of ladies shoes and sandals to withstand repeated lateral impacts without breaking off is determined by holding the heel in a suitable holder and giving repeated impacts of specified impact energy near its lower edge. The test is continued till the time the heel fractures, or till a total number of 20,000 impacts is given to the heel under test. The number of impact after which the heel fractures gives a measure of the Fatigue Resistance of the heel under test.
In this test, a test specimen in shape of a square block is held over a flat reciprocating platform and is pressed down from top by a horizontal cylindrical roller inclined at an angle of 15° to the direction of motion of the platform. The platform is moved for a specified number of cycles and the effect of repeated compressions produced on the test specimen is evaluated by finding the change in its thickness and indentation hardness number.
The GlobeAir Flow Testerfor polyurethane foamconsists of an arrangement to hold a test specimen in a square opening in a cylindrical chamber so as to expose a known area to the flow of air through it, a vacuum system to draw air through the exposed area of the test specimen, arrangement to measure the rate of flow of air through the test specimen, and arrangement to measure the pressure drop between the two faces of the test specimen as a result of flow of air
Breakdown of any insulating material generally occurs either through its volume or over its surface, or in both ways. Surface failures may arise from flash over, or from progressive degradation of the insulation surfaces by small localized sparks. Such sparks are the result of breaking up of a surface film of conducting contaminant on the insulation by the heat of a leakage current passing through it. Rapid breaks in the leakage current produce an over-voltage at the site of the discontinuity and an electric spark is caused. Repeated sparks at any one point may lead to setting up of a carbon track between points at different potentials. This process is known as Tracking. Insulating parts retaining live parts in position shall have adequate resistance to tracking if they are exposed to excessive deposition of moisture or dirt in normal use.
IS 2824 – 1975 : Method for Determining Comparative Tracking Index of Solid Insulating Materials under Moist Conditions
IEC: 60112 – 2003 : Methods for the determination of the Proof and the Comparative Tracking indices of Solid Insulating Material
Pliability of Cables is determined by determining the force exerted by the cable specimen at a specified distance while bending to a specified degree or determining the degree of bend for exerting a specified force at a specified distance.
The GlobePliability Tester for Cables consists of digital balance fitted on a rigid base. One end of the cable under test is held in a rotating grip, while the other end is resting on a wedge on the balance at a distance of 76.2 mm (3”) from the rotating grip pivot. A pointer is attached to the grip and angle of movement of grip is indicated on a circular scale.
The ability of coated fabrics to successfully resist penetration of water through their coatings is an important criterion for determining their suitability for a variety of applications. This determination may be carried out either by applying a gradually increasing hydraulic pressure on the coated side and finding the pressure at which the first drop of water penetrates through the test specimen, or by applying a fixed known hydraulic pressure on the coated face for a specified duration of time and finding the time taken by the first drop of water to penetrate through. Depending on the final use the test specimen is to be put to, the above determination may be carried out either under a low pressure or under a high pressure.
In the low pressure method, the test specimen is held over an open well having a circular opening of 100 cm²area and the pressure is either increased at a specified rate, or is kept constant at a specified value.
IS 7016 (Part 7) - 1986: Method of Test for Coated and Treated Fabrics
Part 7: Determination of resistance to penetration by water
The Globe Thickness Tester - Digital is designed to measure the thickness of floor coverings under different loads. It consists of a rigid metallic frame having a loading rod held with its axis vertical capable of moving freely in two brass guide bushes. The rod has a flat cylinder indentor fixed on its lower end and a small metallic disc shaped collar fitted on its body. Slotted dead weights of appropriate loading capacity can be placed on this collar to enable different pressures to be applied on the specimen under test. The rod and the load can be raised or lowered with the help of a lever arm.
The ability of cable ducting and trunking systems for electrical installations to withstand impacts likely to be encountered during their working life is determined by dropping a guided weight from a pre-determined height over a cylindrical striker placed on the surface of the cable ducting and observing for signs of its failure under this impact.
The Globe Impact Tester for cable ducting and trunking systems consists of a guided cylindrical striker with its axis held along a vertical plane and a dropping weight which can be released from different pre-set heights to strike the top face of the striker. The striker, which rests on the surface of the cable ducting under test, is loosely guided by the lower end of a guide rod. The guide rod is firmly held inside a supporting block, which can be moved over two vertical rods for changing the dropping height.
Clause 10.3 : Impact Test
Round sample cutter for determination of GSM of any material in film form such as carpet, coated fabrics, fabrics, felt, foam, paper or paper board, or plastic sheets is used for preparing test specimens out of the material under test.
The Globe Round Sample Cutter cuts out circular test specimens of 100 cm² area rapidly and accurately. Grammage or GSM of the material under test is determined by multiplying the mass of the circular specimen obtained by 100.
The equipment consists of an aluminum body fitted with a set of four replaceable blades and also provided with safety catch lock. The reversible blades allow the use of all the four edges of each blade. Two special cutting pads are provided with the unit.
The sample to be cut is placed on the cutting pad on which the sample cutter is placed. After releasing the safety catch lock, a slight pressure is exerted on the hand wheel to bring the blades into contact with the fabric. The hand wheel is then rotated under pressure to cut out the specimens.
The force needed to cause slipping between two surfaces of any plastic film depends on its co-efficient of friction.
The coefficient of friction is the ratio of the frictional force and normal pressure acting on two surfaces in contact with each other. Thus it is an inverse measure of the relative ease with which a material will slide over a similar or different material.
The Globe Slip Tester for plastic films is designed to determine both static and dynamic co-efficients of friction between two flat surfaces of flexible plastic films. It consists of a rigid, smooth, and horizontal platform for mounting the test specimen on and an arrangement to measure frictional force between the test specimen mounted on it and a movable sled.
The horizontal platform is provided with a channel around its periphery for providing vacuum clamping to the film under test. A steel sled having its bottom face lined with a 3 mm thick layer of micro-cellular foam sheet is kept on top of the test specimen mounted over the platform. The sled is moved at the specified speed with the help of a screw mechanism driven by an electric motor. It is also connected to a load cell for measurement of frictional force acting on it. A peak force display arrangement enables the maximum force exerted during the slipping operation to be recorded and displayed when desired. Arrangement to automatically stop the movement of the sled at the extreme ends of travel of the load cell is also provided.
Drape Meter Testing Equipment is defined as the extent to which a fabric will deform when it is allowed to hang under its own weight. It is one of the subjective performance characteristics of fabric and contributes considerably to its aesthetic appeal. It is a complex characteristic involving both bending and shearing deformation. One of the methods of determining the drape characteristic in which both the warp and weft way characteristics interact to produce a graceful fold uses a circular support over which a specimen of the fabric in form of a circular piece is placed with an annular section overhanging the support. The horizontal area covered by the shadow left by the overhanging portion of the fabric is determined and compared against its actual area to obtain the drape co-efficient.
One of the most common measure of the quality of a fabric is the number of threads per unit length in both the warp and weft directions, or its picks and ends.
Picks and ends of any fabric are normally determined with the help of an ordinary counting glass having a square or rectangular opening of specified size. However, when a greater degree of accuracy in determination of picks or ends is needed, or the weave is too fine to be checked with an ordinary counting glass, this counting is carried out with the help of a Traverse Thread Counter.
In this apparatus a traveling microscope is used for viewing the weave of the fabric under test. Openings of known widths are provided to enable picks and ends per unit length to be determined, both in metric and imperial systems.
Colorfastness of dyed or printed fabrics against perspiration is determined by exposing the fabric sample to the action of both alkaline and acidic reagents while in contact with undyed fabrics on both sides. The test specimens, held between two white adjacent fabrics, are placed between plastic plates under a fixed load inside a hot air oven maintained at 37° C. The apparatus used for this test is called the perspirometer.
The Globe Perspirometer consists of a metallic loading frame and a set of acrylic plates which can be kept in the loading frame.
The loading frame consists of two steel plates separated from each other by four mild steel rods. A set of two mild steel plates held together by means of distance pieces and springs with a dead weight are provided to apply a constant force on the test specimens placed between acrylic plates.
Dimensions of acrylic plates : 11.5 cm x 6.0 cm
The Shoe Flex Tester is used for determination of the ability of the full shoe to withstand the effect of flexing stresses produced on the different parts of the shoe. Although the various parts like uppers and soles of a shoe are tested separately for flexing endurance with the help of flexometer and Ross flex tester, the shoe flex tester gives results, which are more related to the actual performance of the shoe as a whole.
The toe portion of safety / protective footwear shall be sufficiently rigid so as not to get pressed down beyond a specified limit when a heavy block falls down on it, thus preventing crushing of or injury to the toe of the user.
The toes of such footwear are generally reinforced with a steel toe-cap to provide rigidity to them. Whether these toe-caps are sufficient robust so as to fulfill their desired function is ascertained by subjecting the toe-cap assembled in a cut-out shoe to an impact by a falling weight. The toe-cap shall not press down beyond a specified limit during the impact.
The toe portion of shoes used for industrial applications or used in mines shall be sufficiently rigid so as not to get pressed down beyond a specified limit when a heavy block falls down on it, thus preventing crushing of or injury to the toe of the user. The toes of mines safety boots or industrial shoes are generally reinforced with a steel toe cap to provide rigidity to them. Whether these toe caps are sufficient robust so as to fulfill their desired function is ascertained by subjecting the toe cap or the full shoe to an impact by a falling weight using suitable equipment. The Toe Cap shall not press down beyond a specified limit during the impact.
Part 2 for Heavy Metal Industries
Wear Tester For Shoe Lace
The resistance of Shoe Laces to wear and tear due to abrasion while tying is determined by abrading two samples of the lace against each other under a specified tension and finding the number of rubs which cause one of the laces to wear off till it breaks into two. One of the laces used in the test is formed into a loop and suspended from a pin in a vertical plane. One end of the second laces is held in a rotating grip. The lace is passed through the loop of the first lace and a specified dead weight suspended from its free and to keep both the loops under tension. The movement of the grip causes rubbing action between the two laces, which continues till one of them fails. The number of rubs needed to cause failure gives a measure of the resistance of the lace to wear. Wearing of lace against eye let can also be evaluated.
SATRAPM154 – 1992:Physical Test Method for Shoe Lace to Shoe Lace and Shoe Lace to Lace Carrier Abrasion.
The ability of light leathers and leather-cloth used in manufacture of shoe uppers, gloves, and garments to withstand repeated flexing without cracking is determined with the help of a Cold Flexometer. In a cooler environments the material becomes brittle and its ability to withstand flexing deteriorate very fast. As such for shoes, which are used in very cold weather, conducting this test at sub-zero temperature is very important